In order to avoid exclusive dependence on the National Guard, the "Citizen King" charged Marshal Soult, the new Minister of War, with reorganizing the Army. Popular choices include Framed Prints, Canvas Prints, Posters and Jigsaw Puzzles. A part of the center-left thus decided to present Hippolyte Passy against Barrot. The 2 March 1839 elections were a disappointment for the king, who lost two loyal deputies, while the coalition mustered 240 members, against only 199 for the government. La partie gauche de la Chambre des députés demande une réforme politique. The Church of Sainte-Geneviève was once again returned to its functions as a secular building, named the Panthéon. Cette origine révolutionnaire et le choix du duc d'Orléans, devenu Louis-Philippe, parce que Bourbon pour les uns, quoique Bourbon pour d'autres, expliquent l'ambiguïté du régime qu'une autre révolution devait emporter dix-huit ans plus tard. The old land-owners, civil servants and liberal professions continued to dominate the state of affairs, leading the historian David H. Pinkney to deny any claim of a "new regime of a grande bourgeoisie".[5]. The Court of Peers delivered its sentence on the insurgents of Lyon on 13 August 1835, and on the other defendants in December 1835 and January 1836. While Thiers favored the conservative bourgeoisie, he also made sure to satisfy the Left's thirst for glory. ", This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 19:57. The scene was later depicted by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables. Thiers responded by sending out the National Guard and invoking the laws prohibiting public meetings. They were willing to make some compromises with the changes brought by the 1789 Revolution. À partir de 1840, le gouvernement animé par François Guizot s'appuyant sur une majorité politique docile, grâce à la corruption électorale, refuse tout élargissement du corps électoral par abaissement du cens. On 30 October 1836, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte attempted an uprising in Strasbourg, which was quickly put down and the Bonapartist prince and his accomplices were arrested on the same day. On 5 February 1836, a narrow majority of deputies (194 against 192) decided to continue the examination of the draft, thus disavowing Broglie's cabinet. Thiers' motivations for accepting the position of head of the government and taking the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as well were to enable him to negotiate the duc d'Orléans's wedding with an Austrian archduchess. Thus, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was largely illusory. Au matin du 27 août 1830, peu après l'avènement de la monarchie de Juillet, le prince de Condé fut retrouvé « pendu […] » par le cou par un double mouchoir noué par un nœud de tisserand... mais les pieds touchant le sol, à l'espagnolette de la fenêtre de sa chambre du château de … Mais dans la soirée des manifestants sont tués par des soldats. The election of only the wealthiest men tended to undermine any possibility for growth of a radical faction in Parliament, and effectively served socially conservative ends. Louis-Napoléon est emprisonné au fort de Ham, dans la Somme (dont il s'évade en 1846). On 23 July 1831, the king set out Casimir Perier's program in the speech from the Throne: strict application of the Charter at home and strict defense of the interests of France and its independence abroad. Monarchie De Juillet Gallery Available as Framed Prints, Photos, Wall Art and Gift Items. Those defendants who were present for their trial introduced a great many procedural delays, and attempted by all means to transform the trial into a platform for Republicanism. Both the government and the Chamber were Orleanists. Dans cette histoire des flux et reflux de la garde nationale, la monarchie de Juillet tient une place à part. supported it. Biology - Mary Ann Clark, Jung Choi, Matthew Douglas. La Monarchie de Juillet (période de 1830 – 1848) I – Les Français sous la Monarchie de Juillet . He excluded reformers from official discourse, and abandoned the regime's unofficial policy of mediating in labor disputes in favor of a strict laissez-faire policy that favored employers. Les légitimistes sont des royalistes qui considèrent que le roi Louis-Philippe est un usurpateur. Though two factions always persisted in the cabinet, split between liberal conservatives such as Guizot (le parti de la Résistance, the Party of Resistance) and liberal reformers such as the journalist Adolphe Thiers (le parti du Mouvement, the Party of Movement), the latter never gained prominence. He first pretended to offer the presidency of the Council to the duc de Broglie, and then Soult, before accepting it and taking Foreign Affairs at the same time. Therefore, the king and Molé decided, against the duc d'Orléans's advice, that the moment was auspicious for the dissolving of the Chamber, which was done on 3 October 1837. Seizing the opportunity of an incident concerning the French possessions in Algeria, they pushed Soult to resign on 18 July 1834. The opening of the parliamentary session on 19 November 1832, was a success for the regime. The new law changed that to a simple majority (7 against 5), and was adopted on 20 August 1835 by 224 votes to 149. In particular, the Guizot administration was marked by increasingly authoritarian crackdowns on republicanism and dissent, and an increasingly pro-business policy. Henceforth, there was an increase in workers' demonstrations, with riots in the Buzançais in 1847. On 14 March 1831, on the initiative of a patriotic society created by the mayor of Metz, Jean-Baptiste Bouchotte, the opposition's press launched a campaign to gather funds to create a national association aimed at struggling against any Bourbon Restoration and the risks of foreign invasion. "The July Monarchy and the Napoleonic Myth. Louis-Philippe pledged his oath to the 1830 Charter on 9 August setting up the beginnings of the July Monarchy. In the meanwhile, the prefect of the Seine Odilon Barrot was replaced by Taillepied de Bondy at Montalivet's request, and the prefect of police Jean-Jacques Baude by Vivien de Goubert. Another riot, started on the rue Saint-Denis on 14 June 1831, degenerated into an open battle against the National Guard, assisted by the Dragoons and the infantry. But Metternich and the archduchess Sophie of Bavaria, who dominated the court in Vienna, rejected an alliance with the House of Orléans, which they deemed too unstable. Gérard however, was forced to resign in turn, on 29 October 1834, over the question of an amnesty for the 2,000 prisoners detained in April. Various budget restrictions were imposed on the Catholic Church, while the 1825 Anti-Sacrilege Act which envisioned death penalties for sacrilege was repealed. The July Monarchy was thereafter sure of its ground, with discussions concerning its legitimacy being completely outlawed. In a gesture of appeasement, Louis-Philippe canceled his feast-day celebration on 1 May, and publicly announced that the sums that were to have been used for these festivities would be dedicated to the orphans, widows and injured. Molé presented his resignation to the king on 8 March, which Louis-Philippe was forced to accept. In this context, the deputies decided to support Victor de Broglie as head of the government, mainly because he was the king's least preferred choice, as Louis-Philippe disliked both his anglophilia and his independence. At the end of February 1834, a new law that subjected the activities of town criers to public authorization led to several days of confrontations with the police. Louis-Philippe thereafter turned towards Odilon Barrot, who refused to assume governmental responsibilities, pointing out that he had only a hundred deputies in the Chamber. À partir de 1846, une grave crise agricole diminue les revenus des agriculteurs (la très grande majorité de la population). As the qualifications for voting was related to payment of a certain level of taxes, only the wealthiest men gained this privilege. Dans la nuit leurs cadavres sont promenés dans les rues de Paris, ce qui provoque des appels à l'insurrection. Des mascarades anti-religieuses renforcent le carnaval qui se tenait alors. Ministers lost their honorifics of Monseigneur and Excellence and became simply Monsieur le ministre. The duchess was then expelled to Italy on 8 June 1833. Le régime politique repose sur le suffrage censitaire qui donne le pouvoir à la petite partie la plus riche de la bourgeoisie française. On the other hand, a number of the deputies stated that the ministers needed a leader commanding a parliamentary majority, and thus wanted to continue the evolution towards parliamentarism which had only been sketched out in the Charter of 1830. Civil unrest, however, continued, and not only in Paris. The resulting fall in domestic consumption led to a crisis of industrial overproduction. His gesture was in vain as the Second Republic was proclaimed on 26 February 1848, on the Place de la Bastille, before the July Column. The latter pandered to patriotic feelings by decreeing, on 29 July 1840, a partial mobilization, and by starting, on 13 September 1840, the works on the fortifications of Paris. 9 Full PDFs related to this paper. This policy included protective tariffs that defended the status quo and enriched French businessmen. La Monarchie de Juillet est mise en place le 9 août 1830 après les journées révolutionnaires des 27, 28 et 29 juillet 1830 appelées aussi Trois Glorieuses. This new event, in which the government had fallen not because of parliament but because of a disagreement with the king on foreign policy, demonstrated that the evolution towards parliamentarianism was far from being assured. Pair of French Officer Demi arçon pistols, Monarchie de Juillet type 1830/ 1848 in case, later transformed in percussion. The sentences were rather mild: a few condemnations to deportation, many short prison sentences and some acquittals. However, in his first speech, on 18 April 1837, Molé cut short his critics with the announcement of the future wedding of Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans (styled as the prince royal) with the Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. When revealed, the London Convention of 15 July 1840 provoked an explosion of patriotic fury: France had been ousted from a zone where it traditionally exercised its influence, while Prussia, which had no interest in it, was associated with the treaty. Alarmed, all the ministers decided to resign, three days later, without even advising Bassano, whose government became known as the "Three Days Ministry." There, in the name of the municipal council, the mayor made a very political speech in which he expressed the wish to have peerages abolished, adding that France should intervene in Poland to assist the November Uprising against Russia. In the Army, the General de Bourmont, a follower of Charles X who was commanding the invasion of Algeria, was replaced by Bertrand Clauzel. He gained 181 votes to the banker Laffitte's 176. Casimir Perier, who on 1 April 1832 visited the patients at the Hôtel-Dieu with the Prince Royal, contracted the disease. The Fieschi attentat shocked the bourgeoisie and most of France, which was generally more conservative than the people of Paris. Ils forment le « parti de la Résistance ». On 12 May 1840, the Minister of the Interior, Charles de Rémusat, announced to the deputies that the king had decided that the remains of Napoléon would be transferred to the Invalides. ", Pinkney, David H. "Laissez-Fair or Intervention? Eux-mêmes sont divisés sur la place qu'il faut accorder au roi dans la direction du pays (Thiers est opposé à l'idée d'un roi qui gouverne alors que Guizot s'en accommode.). Les légitimistes vont désormais faire de l'opposition dans leurs salons du faubourg Saint-Germain à Paris ou dans leurs châteaux de province en y commentant les articles de leur journaux favoris La Quotidienne et La Gazette de France. Be the first to write a review. The banker Laffitte, one of the main figures of the Parti du mouvement, thereupon put himself forward to coordinate the ministers with the title of "President of the Council". Two days later, they also adopted a very repressive law on detention and use of military weapons. La monarchie de Juillet est le nom du régime politique de la France de juillet 1830 à février 1848. « Monarchie de Juillet » expliqué aux enfants par Vikidia, l’encyclopédie junior, La bourgeoisie française accapare le pouvoir, Parti de la résistance et parti du mouvement, Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Française, premiers colons d'origine européenne s'installent dans ce territoire, L'impôt que l'on doit payer pour ses biens, ouvrir et entretenir une école primaire de garçons, loi qui réglemente le travail des enfants,, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0. With obvious displeasure, Louis-Philippe finally signed the 16 February 1831 ordinance substituting for the arms of the House of Orléans a shield with an open book, on which could be read "Charte de 1830". State assistance was nonexistent. Bugeaud, who would lead harsh repression against the natives, was officially nominated on 29 December 1840, a few days after Thiers's fall. More than 2,000 arrests were made following the riots, in particular in Paris and Lyon. Arago was attempting to unite the left-wing by tying together universal suffrage claims and Socialist claims, which had appeared in the 1840s, concerning the "right of work" (droit au travail). Thiers pushed in favor of colonizing of the interior of the country, up to the edges of the desert. Thiers devient président du conseil. An 1842 law organized the national railway network, which grew from 600 to 1,850 km, a sure sign that the Industrial Revolution had fully reached France. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. L'Hôtel de Ville est occupé et la résidence royale du palais des Tuileries est menacée. Louis-Philippe, who claimed to be the "Citizen King" linked to the country by a popular sovereignty contract on which he founded his legitimacy, did not see that the French people were advocating an enlargement of the electorate, either by a decrease of the electoral tax threshold, or by the establishment of universal suffrage[citation needed]. The conservative Journal des débats spoke of a "coalition of all talents",[11] while the King of the French would eventually speak, with obvious disappointment, of a "Casimir Perier in three persons." Dernière modification de cette page le 17 mars 2020 à 19:23. These changes produced a unified central government that was fiscally sound and had much control over all areas of French life, a sharp difference from the complicated mix of feudal and absolutist traditions and institutions of pre-Revolutionary Bourbons. Louis-Philippe ruled, not as "King of France" but as "King of the French" (an evocative difference for contemporaries). The regime acknowledged early on that radicalism and republicanism threatened it, as they undermined its laissez-faire policies. Le roi fait appel au duc de Broglie, à Thiers et à Guizot, autres chefs du parti de la Résistance. Unpopular laws passed during the Restoration were repealed, including the 1816 amnesty law which had banished the regicides – with the exception of article 4, concerning the Bonaparte family. During the parliamentary debates concerning France's imminent intervention in Belgium, several deputies, led by baron Bignon, unsuccessfully requested similar intervention to support Polish independence. When Casimir Perier learnt the news, he dissolved the National Guard of Grenoble and immediately recalled the 35th regiment to the city. Related to industrialization and the rural exodus, the working poor became an increasingly large segment of the population. The king promised to follow the juste milieu, or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of both the conservative supporters of Charles X and radicals on the left. All of Thiers's efforts would be thereafter focused on pushing the Doctrinaires away from the ministerial majority. Unharmonious Images Conceived by Troubled Minds: Graphic and Literary Caricatures in Heinrich Heine’s French Affairs and French Painters [Full text] Published in Interfaces, 42 | … This incident was immortalized in a lithograph by Honoré Daumier. He thus called him to form a new government on 2 November 1830. The relatively moderate Comte de Provence, brother of the deposed-and-executed Louis XVI, ruled as Louis XVIII from 1814 to 1824 and was succeeded by his more conservative younger brother, the former Comte d'Artois, ruling as Charles X from 1824. » ("Get rich through work and savings and then you will be electors!") Strikes and demonstrations were permanent.[3]. Broglie's most important task was the trial of the April insurgents, which began on 5 May 1835 before the Chamber of Peers. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For a month and a half, the king tried various ministerial combinations before forming a new government which included Camille de Montalivet, who was close to him, but which excluded Guizot, who had more and more difficulty working with Molé, who was once again confirmed as head of the government. The polemics which led to Marshal Mortier's resignation, fueled by monarchists such as Baron Massias and the Count of Roederer, all turned around the question of parliamentary prerogative. Louis-Philippe then decided to pretend to play the parliamentary card, with the secret intention of neutralizing it. On 19 February 1831, Guizot verbally attacked Laffitte in the Chamber of Deputies, daring him to dissolve the Chamber and present himself before the electors. On 9 April 1834, when the Chamber of Peers was to vote on the law, the Second Canut Revolt exploded in Lyon. After a short discussion, Thiers and his associates collectively presented their resignations to the king, who accepted them. On 29 July 1836, the inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe, intended to be the scene of a ceremony of national concord, during which the July Monarchy would harness the glory of the Revolution and of the Empire, finally took place, quietly and unceremoniously, at seven in the morning and without the king being present. La monarchie de Juillet est le nom donné au régime politique du royaume de France entre 1830 et 1848. The reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the king—stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, as well as limiting his executive authority. Coat of Arms of Louis Philippe I (Order of the Golden Fleece), Initial period (August 1830 – November 1830), The symbolic establishment of the new regime, Civil unrest (Canut Revolt) and repression, The consolidation of the regime (1832–1835), Short-lived governments (July 1834 – February 1835), Evolution towards parliamentarianism (1835–1840), The legislative elections of 4 November 1837, The legislative elections of 2 March 1839, Second Soult government (May 1839 – February 1840), Even if Louis-Philippe I was titled King of the French, the name of the country remained Kingdom of France, as it can be seen in the, a year in which many European states had a revolution, voting was related to payment of a certain level of taxes, "Marx and the Permanent Revolution in France: Background to the,, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Watch Queue Queue Thiers compared Molé to Polignac, one of Charles X's ministers. Family celebrations and banquets also served as pretexts for gatherings. On 16 May 1840, Thiers harshly rejected universal suffrage and social reforms after a speech by the Radical François Arago, who had linked the ideas of electoral reform and social reform. Britain thereafter recognized Mehmet Ali's hereditary rule on Egypt: France had obtained a return to the situation of 1832. The omnipresence of the French police, organized during the French First Empire by Fouché, was depicted by the Legitimist writer Balzac in Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. These changes had seen power shift from the noble landowners to the urban merchants. According to him, the monarchy should favor the "middle classes", defined by land ownership, a "moral" tied to money, work and savings. This site was designed with the .com. The parliamentary session opened on 4 April in a quasi-insurrectionary atmosphere. The people of Paris suspected poisoners, while scavengers and beggars revolted against the authoritarian measures of public health. The Legitimist duchess of Berry attempted an uprising in spring 1832 in Provence and Vendée, a stronghold of the ultra-royalists, while the Republicans headed an insurrection in Paris on 5 June 1832, on the occasion of the funeral of one of their leaders, General Lamarque, also struck dead by the cholera. Histoire de la Monarchie de Juillet. The extended franchise tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group. But the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France (although monarchy was re-established under Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, who reigned as Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870). During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement roughly doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 men by 1848. Strengthened by these recent successes, Louis-Philippe initiated two visits to the provinces, first into the north to meet with the victorious Marshal Gérard and his men, and then into Normandy, where Legitimist troubles continued, from August to September 1833. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 1962 (OCoLC)567827956 Online version: Vigier, Philippe. Lock front action ,same decorations , Nipples ok. Steel rods ( original ? However, informed of these negotiations, the British Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord Palmerston, quickly negotiated a treaty between the four powers to sort out the "Eastern Question". In the beginning of April 1831, the government took some unpopular measures, forcing several important personalities to resign: Odilon Barrot was dismissed from the Council of State, General Lamarque's military command suppressed, Bouchotte and the Marquis de Laborde forced to resign. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830). He believed that electoral reform to establish universal suffrage should precede the social reform, which he considered very urgent.[14]. The transport network was quickly enlarged. Where there had been 178 in the preceding Chamber, there were now 191. The July Monarchy, however, ruled during a time of turmoil. Beside this continuing unrest, in every province, Dauphiné, Picardy, in Carcassonne, Alsace, etc., various Republican conspiracies threatened the government (conspiracy of the Tours de Notre-Dame in January 1832, of the rue des Prouvaires in February 1832, etc.)

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